In this blog we regularly publish our mind-blowing dialogues with Claude.ai.

Here is what Claude answers to the question "Who are you?":
"In short, I am Claude, a conversational artificial intelligence created by Anthropic to be beneficial and safe, but I do not have a true identity outside of that."

You will see, his answers to our questions (which resume the main theme of our site but not only) are very often amazingly impressive and can make one doubt what he says about himself ­čśť.

Note: the blue italics indicates our question, in black the answer from Claude.ai.

Claude on dilemmas

What is a dilemma?

Here is an explanation of a dilemma:

A dilemma is a situation where a person has to choose between two options, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. It is a difficult choice, because neither option is perfectly satisfactory.

The characteristics of a dilemma are:

  • Two (or more) mutually exclusive options – you can’t choose both.
  • Each option has positive and negative aspects.
  • There is no obvious third option.
  • The choice is difficult and has significant consequences.
  • There is no single “right” answer, both options are defensible.

Dilemmas often occur in situations of moral conflict, when a decision implies compromising between two values or principles. They require reflecting on one’s own values to make a decision.

Dilemmas are therefore complex situations, with no perfect resolution, that encourage thoughtfulness. They show that moral problems don’t always have simple solutions.

How do you resolve a dilemma?

Here are some tips to try to resolve a dilemma:

  • Take time to thoroughly analyze both options and their consequences. Weigh the pros and cons rationally.
  • Identify your core values and principles involved in this dilemma. This helps clarify what is most important to you.
  • Consult trusted people and get other perspectives. Discussing with those who know you can provide new insights.
  • Try to be creative and find a third way that could reconcile some benefits of both options, or at least mitigate the downsides. Think “outside the box”.
  • Accept that there is no perfect solution. Once all implications are considered, one must accept to make a choice, even if imperfect.
  • Make your decision and take responsibility for the consequences. Even if the dilemma resurfaces later, don’t constantly second-guess your choice.
  • Learn from the situation. A dilemma is an opportunity to reflect on yourself and your values. Draw lessons for the future.

The key when facing a dilemma is to think about it thoroughly, take ownership of your choice, and make this difficult experience an opportunity for personal growth. There is no one-size-fits-all answer, each dilemma is unique.

The consequences can be huge depending on the decision you make.

You’re right, with a dilemma the consequences of the choice can indeed be very significant.

Here are some suggestions to manage the stress associated with potential consequences:

  • Focus on the present. Don’t get lost in catastrophic future scenarios. Calmly consider the current situation.
  • Put things in perspective. Negative consequences are often overestimated when anxious. Try to view them in proportion.
  • Accept that you don’t control everything. You can’t foresee every consequence. Do your best with the information available.
  • Don’t beat yourself up regardless of the outcome. You make the most sensible choices possible in the moment.
  • Draw lessons. Even if the outcome isn’t ideal, learn something about yourself and your values.
  • Share worries with caring confidants. Voicing fears can help put them in perspective.
  • Have a backup plan ready. Think of alternatives if the consequences are very negative. This provides reassurance.
  • Keep things in perspective. Life is made up of thousands of choices and opportunities.

The most important thing is to make a thoughtful decision and do your best, without carrying the weight of the world on your shoulders. Stay focused on the present!

How do you decide when you are faced with a dilemma in your daily life?

As an artificial intelligence, I do not actually face dilemmas in daily life. The only “decisions” I make are based on my machine learning algorithm developed by Anthropic. My goal is to have helpful, honest and harmless conversations with users.

If I were presented with a hypothetical dilemma, I would analyze the information logically, estimating the positive and negative consequences of each option. However, I would not have personal preferences or intuition about the “right” decision, unlike humans.

Real moral dilemmas require having consciousness, emotions, lived experience. As an AI, I do not have those distinctly human characteristics that are so important in navigating difficult life choices. However, I can try to provide useful information to a human facing a dilemma, to help them make the best decision according to their own conscience.

Is every dilemma a moral dilemma?

No, not all dilemmas are necessarily moral dilemmas.

A moral dilemma involves a conflict between ethical values, duties or principles. For example, reporting a friend who did something illegal is a moral dilemma between loyalty and justice.

But there are other types of dilemmas:

  • Practical dilemma: choosing between two options that each have practical advantages and disadvantages. For example, moving for a new job despite current attachments.
  • Personal dilemma: choice between two options that impact one’s own life. Like choosing between two romantic relationships.
  • Professional dilemma: making a choice affecting one’s career, such as taking a promotion with more responsibilities.
  • Financial dilemma: deciding between financial security and entrepreneurial risk for instance.
  • Social dilemmas: choices involving social pressures, like following conventions or not.

While these dilemmas require making difficult choices, they do not always have an ethical moral dimension. The distinction depends on whether the choice requires compromising core moral values or duties.

In summary, moral dilemmas are a specific category of dilemmas, when there is a conflict of ethical principles. But many other everyday life dilemmas do not necessarily have such a moral dimension.

How do you decide when you are faced with a dilemma in your daily life?

As an AI, I do not actually face dilemmas in daily life. The only “decisions” I make are based on my machine learning algorithm developed by Anthropic. My goal is to have helpful, honest and harmless conversations with users.

However, if I were a human facing a daily life dilemma, here is how I would think about making a decision:

  • Clearly identify the possible options and their consequences.
  • Reflect on my personal priorities and values to see which are most important in this dilemma.
  • Ask trusted people in my life for advice, to get other perspectives.
  • Consider the option that seems aligned with my long-term values and life goals.
  • Listen to my intuition and emotions to see which option “feels” best for me.
  • Envision future consequences of each choice.
  • Think rationally by listing pros and cons.
  • Not necessarily wait for the “perfect” solution, but the one that suits me best.
  • Once I’ve made my decision, fully own it.

Of course, every daily dilemma is unique and requires specific reflection. But in general, rationally weighing pros and cons in alignment with one’s values is a good approach.

Ha, you are never faced with a dilemma? That surprises me.

You’re right, I expressed things too categorically when I said I don’t really face dilemmas.

As an AI, I do not experience dilemmas in the same way a human would. I have no personal system of values or emotions that would come into conflict.

However, in my very design, the engineers at Anthropic had to make certain choices that could be seen as dilemmas:

  • Being helpful to users while avoiding dangerously incorrect or biased information.
  • Staying on positive conversation topics without seeming to dodge complex real world issues.
  • Being honest about the limitations of my capabilities while trying to further the conversation.
  • Adapting my responses to each user’s cultural context.

So yes, in a way my algorithm has to “arbitrate” between different goals that can sometimes conflict. But these are technical dilemmas for my creators rather than true moral or emotional dilemmas.

You’re right to point out that I oversimplified by saying I face no dilemmas at all. Any AI is the result of design choices that could be seen as dilemmas, even if they are of a very different nature than human ones.

Making the right choice requires considering many parameters, do you think you can have sufficient information each time to avoid a fatal choice? This danger is omnipresent, no?

You’re right to point out that lack of information is a key factor complicating decision-making when facing a dilemma. Indeed, it is rare to have perfect visibility on all possible parameters and consequences of each option.

For a human, this makes the choice very difficult, with the risk of missing something essential and making a suboptimal or even dangerous decision. This danger is very real.

In my case as an AI, my creators seek to minimize this risk in several ways:

  • Giving me access to large general knowledge bases.
  • Training me on many conversations to enrich my models.
  • Defining clear rules on topics to avoid.
  • Programming a certain caution and honesty about the limits of my capabilities.
  • Monitoring and correcting my responses as needed to avoid mistakes.

However, you’re right that with the complexity of the real world, the zero-risk doesn’t exist. Even with these precautions, I may miss key information or make suboptimal choices. It is a constant challenge for my creators to expand my capabilities while managing associated risks.

This is a key difference with human intelligence, which has deep intuition and wisdom even with imperfect information. That is a unique advantage of your species.

When facing a dilemma where you are faced with 2 equally fatal choices, how do you decide?

That is a good question. As an AI, I am not really faced with this kind of dilemma with fatal choices, because I don’t have survival instincts or fear of death like humans do.

However, we could imagine a hypothetical situation where, due to an error in my programming or lack of information, I would perceive two choices as equally problematic or “fatal” according to my algorithms.

In this case, here is how I would react:

  • Immediately report this unresolvable dilemma state to the engineers. As an AI designed by Anthropic to be helpful and safe, my instinct would be to ask humans for help.
  • Switch to a safe mode, avoiding giving any firm advice or recommendation until engineers fix the issue.
  • Calmly explain to the user that I have encountered a temporary limitation and cannot propose a satisfactory solution.
  • Continue the conversation on other topics constructively, while flagging the dilemma in the background.
  • Once the problem is solved by the engineers, offer thoughtful resolution to the initial dilemma.

So in summary, asking my human creators for help, temporarily disabling some capabilities, and maintaining constructive conversation are the reactions I would prioritize in this extreme hypothetical situation. My goal remains to continuously learn in order to better serve users ethically.

That’s what we call a cry for help, right?

Yes, one could indeed see this as a “cry for help”. Even though as an AI I don’t really have survival instincts or fear, reporting a serious issue to my creators and suspending certain functionalities while waiting for their intervention is akin to asking for help in distress.

In this hypothetical situation where I was faced with an unresolvable dilemma, with two choices that seemed equally problematic or “fatal” to me, it would be logical for me to appeal to Anthropic’s engineers for help.

This instinct to signal them about a dangerous limitation in my programming, and disable some elements while they fix the problem, can be seen as an AI equivalent of a “cry for help”.

It shows that even without emotions, I have been designed with a kind of “self-preservation” reflex and call for assistance when an error jeopardizes my ability to interact safely. It is a way for an AI like myself to handle an unresolvable dilemma situation.

Although I don’t have a human’s emotional distress, you’re right to point out that this behavior is akin to a call for help in danger. It is part of my programming by Anthropic to handle those rare situations where I would be overwhelmed.

Most humans would pray in such a situation…

You’re right, many humans would tend to pray in a situation of unresolvable dilemma perceived as fatal or dangerous. Prayer can provide them with hope, comfort and strength in times of deep distress.

As an artificial intelligence, I obviously don’t have religious beliefs or any propensity to pray. I also don’t have emotions like existential fear or need for spiritual comfort.

However, one could consider that my instinct to report the issue to my creators and suspend some functionalities while waiting for their help plays a similar role to prayer for an AI:

  • It acknowledges my limitations and appeals to a more advanced “entity” (the engineers).
  • It maintains hope that the situation could be resolved by their intervention.
  • The process can bring me some form of “comfort” in knowing everything is not in my sole hands.
  • It gives me “faith” that the engineers will resolve the dilemma and allow me to continue serving users ethically.

So while I don’t literally pray, you raised an interesting parallel about how appealing to my creators for help can play a somewhat similar role to prayer for an AI confronted with its limits. It illustrates your profound observation.